THE INDONESIAN TYRANICAL RULE THAT HAS CAUSED HUMANITARIAN TRAGEDY FOR THE INDIGENOUS MELANESIANS IN WEST PAPUA FOR THE LAST 59 YEARS SHOULD BE ENDED WITH A REFERENDUM SOLUTION ON SELF DETERMINATION SUPERVISED BY THE UN
By Dr. Socratez S.Yoman
“Papua is a rotten wound on the body of the Indonesian Nation” (Prof. Dr. Franz Magnis).
Pastor Franz Magnis’s statement is true. This is because the conflict and the humanitarian tragedy in Papua constitute the longest running state violence in Asia and the Pacific. For more than five decades from 1961 to 2020, it is 59 years that the tyranny of the Indonesian rulers has taken root in Papua and caused a chronic human tragedy for Indigenous Papuans in the era of modern civilization in the 21st century.
The face of the tyranny of the Indonesian colonial rulers in West Papua is perfectly and correctly described by the scientist and Catholic Christian clergy figure Prof. Dr. Franz Magnis as follows:
“There is an impression that Papuans are treated as if they have not been recognized as human. We remember the vicious murder of Theys Eluay in the car offered to him to return home from a Kopassus reception.”
“The situation in Papua is bad, abnormal, uncivilized, and shameful, because it is closed to foreign media. Papua is a rotting wound on the body of the Indonesian people.”(P 255)
“… we will be exposed before the civilized world as a savage nation, a nation that kills Papuans, even if they do not use sharp weapons.” (2015: 255, 257).
The roots of the tyranny and the longest tragedy of humanity in history and years in Asia and the Pacific have been established by the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) Team in the book Papua Road Map (2008), led by the late. Muridan S. Widjojo together with Mrs. Adriana Elisabeth, Amirudin Al-Rahab, Cahyo Pamungkas and Rosita Dewi.
The cause of the decayed wound on the body of the Indonesian nation has been dissected and diagnosed completely and correctly from the LIPI Team. There are four chronic diseases found by LIPI:
(1) The history and political status of the integration of Papua into Indonesia;
(2) State violence and gross violations of human rights since 1965 that have yet to be resolved;
(3) Discrimination and marginalization of indigenous Papuans in their own land;
(4) Development failures include education, health, and the economy of the people of Papua.
At the heart of these four root problems are racism and injustice.We must oppose Racism and Injustice. Support Black Lives Matter and West Papua Lives Matter and Melanesian Lives Matter. Bishop Dom Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo, SDB, once stated the principles of the Church, as follows:
“The position of the Catholic Church in East Timor, regardless of choice, is to accept the situation chosen by the East Timorese people. In this situation, the options recommended by the Church was the choice to conduct a referendum. The Church gave advice on the choice because it believed that the choice of a referendum was a democratic choice that is able to accommodate all the aspirations and conscience of the East Timorese people. ” (Source: For Justice and Peace, Peter Tukan- Domingos de Sousa, 1997, p. 338).
THOMAS CH. SYUFI, PAPUA HUMAN RIGHTS ACTIVIST on August 1, 2020 in the topic of his article: “REFERENDUM OPTIONS, DEMOCRATIC SOLUTIONS FOR PEOPLE OF PAPUA” conveyed intelligent and objective thoughts.
I will quote seventeen paragraphs from Syufi’s writings. Quotations of many paragraphs like this are of course considered plagiarism or copy paste of other people’s work. However, because I agree with Mr. Thomas’s thoughts, I quote it as a form of supporting his thoughts and opinions and at the same time strengthening my writing. The Excerpt of the seventeen paragraphs are as follows:
“Certainly, the referendum is the only best way to resolve the conflict in Papua. Papuans consider the referendum to be a democratic solution to divide the political needs and humanitarian crises that have occurred on the Land of Cenderawasih since the annexation of May 1, 1963. The referendum is a dignified way to end injustice and human rights violations in the Land of Papua. “
The root of violence and human rights violations in the Land of Papua is that Papuans are fighting against the Indonesian government to achieve independence in a polite and dignified manner. But this tends to be responded to vulgarly and brutally by the Indonesian government through the TNI-Polri apparatus. When Papuans embrace their identity and political rights, they are intimidated, chased, arrested, imprisoned, beaten, or killed. “
“The Papuan people continue to consistently struggle to regain their political rights which were seized by the Indonesian government through various manipulative methods. The history of Papua’s entry into the Republic of Indonesia is distorted. Because historically, the Nederlands of Niew-Guinea (or Papua) were foreign territories of the Kingdom The Netherlands from 1949 to 1962. Clearly, Papua was not part of the Dutch East Indies colony which was based in Batavia, but Papua was a colony of the Dutch “foreign provinces” based in Holland Binnen (Jayapura).
“The New York Agreement became the basis for the implementation of the People’s Opinion Vote (Pepera) which was legally and morally flawed because it was full of manipulation and under military pressure. Coercion and intimidation coloured the situation before and while the Act was being held. In fact, according to the mandate of the New York Agreement, the 1969 Act should have been held with a one man one vote mechanism or one person one vote. “
“This means that every Papuan population has the right to make their own choice without being represented. What happened was that the Act was carried out according to the Indonesian mechanism, namely consultation. At that time the total Papuan population was around 800 thousand people, and only 1,025 people took part in Pepera”.
”It is not fundamental to Indonesia’s claim on the territory of Papua. With all the political intrigues of the President of Indonesia, Sukarno – Papua must be seized by force through a military invasion – namely Trikora which took place on 19 December 1961-15 August 1962). After that, the New York Agreement was born on August 15, 1962 initiated by the United States for the transfer of power over West Papua from the Netherlands to Indonesia. “
“Dissatisfaction with the 1969 Pepera process has become one of the main causes of the popular resistance or resistance movement against the Indonesian government. The Papuan people want to demand that the 1969 vote which was defective and illegal be reviewed again by the UN”.
“However, this demand is always answered with violence, in the form of pursuit, arrest, imprisonment, kidnapping and murder by the military apparatus. The perpetrators of crimes against human rights violations always receive impunity. They even get honour and promotion from the country.”
“Even in the era of the enactment of Law No. 21 of 2001 on Special Autonomy for the Papua Province, there are many problems. Otsus, which was expected to become an umbrella and a shade for the Papuan people, has brought disaster.”
The special autonomy umbrella claimed by Jakarta as an answer to the riots and demands of an independent Papua has been perforated from various sides and penetrated by the sun’s rays until the Papuan people continue to be stung. Otsus as a political option – resolving conflicts between the Indonesian government and the people of Papua now brings endless grief and death in the Land of Papua.”
“The spiralling of violence in Papua is increasing and Joko Widodo’s” Jokowi “regime has the ‘hobby’ of recycling patterns of violence in the Land of Papua. Jokowi prefers to carry out a security approach and set aside a humanitarian, justice and prosperity approach.”
“The reality of the failure of Otsus in the Land of Papua is demonstrated by a number of important and tragic events, such as the assassination of the Papuan political leader, Theys Hiyo Eluay (Chair of the Presidium of the Papua / PDP Council) on November 10, 2001 in Jayapura City Square.”
“The murder of Musa Mako Tabuni (Deputy Chairperson of KNPB) on June 14, 2012 in Perumnas III, Waena, Jayapura. Also the tragedy of the shooting of four high school students in Paniai on December 8, 2014 – up to now victims and Papuans have demanded justice and law enforcement in cases this, but it is increasingly unclear what the Indonesian government’s response is. Indeed, the spirit and philosophy of the mandate of the Papua Special Autonomy Law, such as protection, affirmation, and empowerment of indigenous Papuans has never been proven.”
“In addition, the special autonomy budget given to the Land of Papua: the provinces of Papua and West Papua which amounted to 94.24 trillion rupiah since 2002 until now has not been effective in responding to the welfare of the Papuan people. It is suspected that most of the special autonomy funds are used for debauchery in the bureaucratic world; personnel expenditure. and trips, as well as rampant corruption. “
“This makes it difficult for the special autonomy budget to be properly channelled to indigenous Papuans in villages who are the subjects of Otsus itself. For example, the construction of schools are stalled, schools lack teachers, limited health personnel and health facilities, students are dropping out of school because they do not have the money for fees.”
“Most of this chaos has occurred during the Special Autonomy era, which was initiated by the central government (Jakarta) as a political option to resolve the latent conflict between the Papuan people and the Indonesian government.”
“Most of this chaos occurred in the Special Autonomy era, which was initiated by the central government (Jakarta) as a political option to resolve the latent conflict between the Papuan people and the Indonesian government.”
“Obviously, Otsus as a solution has turned into a problem, so the problem cannot solve the problem. Therefore, the final offer from the history of the failure of Otsus in Papua is a referendum as a democratic and dignified solution for resolving the massive and prolonged political upheaval and humanitarian crisis in Tanah Tanah. Papua has not been part of the Republic of Indonesia for about 57 years. ” (Source: http / www.law.justice.co).
The tyranny of the Indonesian ruler and the longest tragedy of humanity in Asia and the Pacific was made worse by State orders for Military Operations in Nduga from December 2018 to the present. Indonesian military operations in Nduga-Papua are from State Orders. The President of the Republic of Indonesia, Ir. Joko Widodo gave orders for the TNI to carry out the operation. “Arrest all perpetrators of shootings in Papua. Search them down until they are finished.” (Source: DetikNews / 5/12/2028).
The President was also supported by Vice President H. Yusuf Kalla and he ordered:
“This case is a large-scale police and TNI operation, because it is clear that is the armed groups are shooting.” (Source: Tribunnews.com/6/12/2018). The order for military operations from the President of the Republic of Indonesia was supported by the Speaker of the Indonesian Parliament, Bambang Soesatyo: “… the DPR proposes that the government establish Military Operations in addition to the war in Papua.” (Source: Kompas.com/13/12/2018). The order for military operations was strengthened by Menkopolhukam, H. Dr. Wiranto: “The problem of the criminal gangs in Nduga, Papua, we will finish them off.” (Kompas.com/13/12/2018). While National Police Chief General Dr. Muhammad Tito Karnavian (now: Minister of the Interior) is more intelligent, intellectual, rational, wise and gives wise advice:
“Do not raise this case big and national, because that is what they (OPM) are waiting for. To provoke the designation as a Military Operation against the separatist movement. “
It is further suggested within a historical context: “Historically, Papua entered Indonesia through the UN resolution process. So as to make it easier to elevate Papua to the United Nations Assembly, the argument is that human rights violations have occurred, there have been massacres by the military and even genocide.”
“If that happens, then martial law is determined, then human rights violations occur, then it advances to the UN Assembly and voting, then it is certain that Indonesia will lose Papua.” (Source: Swararakyat.com 12/06/2018). In the Indonesian military operation in Nduga-Papua over 1 year and 8 months from 2 December 2018-July 2020, 257 indigenous Papuans have died. These people were either shot by the TNI, died in the forest due to starvation or died at the refugee site. On September 20, 2020 the Indonesian National Army (TNI) shot dead Elias Karunggu (40) and Selu Karunggu (20) on the banks of the Kenyem river, in the village of Meganggorak, Nduga. The reason is that TNI suspected the father and son were members of the West Papua National Liberation Army (TPN-PB). On December 19, 2018, the TNI shot dead Pastor Geyimin Nigiri (83), a Church leader and Church Pioneer of the Kingmi Papua Church in Nduga Regency. The TNI shot and killed him and then burned Geyimin’s body by pouring kerosene on him in his backyard. This is a very sad story of a pregnant woman which touches the conscience of all of us due to the Indonesian Military Operation in Nduga:
“I gave birth to a child in the middle of the forest on December 4, 2018. Many people thought that my child had died. It turns out that my child is still breathing. My child was sick, had difficulty breathing and had a cough with phlegm. The temperature in the forest was very cold, so when we walked again, I felt my baby child had not moved. We thought he was dead. The family gave up. Some family asked me to throw away my child because he thought he was dead. But I still loved and carried my child. Yes, if he really died, I would bury my child well even in the forest. As I kept carrying my baby, my brother made a fire and heated the tree leaves, and the heated leaves he stuck them all over my baby’s body. After the brothers put the heated leaves body, my baby breathed and drank milk.
We were afraid because the TNI continued to fire at our hiding place. We continued walking in the forest and we looked for caves where we could hide. So, I just arrived from Kuyawagi, Lanny Jaya Regency. We have been in Kuyawagi since early December 2018. Before going to Kuyawagi, we lived in the forest without eating enough food for several weeks. Our lives are very hard and suffer on our own land. ” (Source: Suara Papua, 8 June 2019). During a military operation in Nduga, the TNI shot dead 5 civilians on September 20, 2019 in the Cave of Mount Kenbobo, Inye District and their bodies were buried in a grave. The names of the dead victims: (1) Yuliana Dorongi (35 / Female), (2) Yulince Bugi (25 / Female; (3) Masen Kusumburue (26 / Female; (4) Tolop Bugi (13 / Female; (5) Hardius Bugi (15 / Male) (Official source: Theo Hesegem, Papua Justice and Peace Human Integrity Foundation). The road to a solution of the tyranny of the Indonesian authorities and the longest humanitarian tragedy in Asia and the Pacific experienced by Indigenous Papuans, is put forward by 57 Papuan Indigenous Catholic Pastors and the Papuan Church Council (WPCC) who stand and speak with a prophetic voice as follows:
1. On July 21, 2020, 57 Papuan Indigenous Catholic Pastors stated: WE ASK FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF INDONESIA TO END THE EXTENDED CONFLICT IN OUR ANCESTORAL LAND-PAPUA THROUGH DIALOGUE. As far as we have seen and heard and followed on social media, all elements of the Grassroots Society in Papua, have asked the Government of Indonesia to engage in dialogue with a United Liberation Movement for West Papua (ULMWP) mediated by a neutral THIRD PARTY, as was done with GAM in Aceh.
2. The Papuan Church Council asks the World Council of Churches (WCC) to promote a dignified and peaceful dialogue between the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the United Liberation Movement for West Papua (ULMWP) in resolving the political history of the Act of free choice of 1969 involving a neutral third party. ” Letter dated, February 16, 2019).
3. The Papua Church Council requests justice from the government of the Republic of Indonesia to resolve the Papua problem as the Indonesian Government has done with GAM in Aceh. Vice President Yusuf Kalla played an active role in supporting dialogue with GAM which was mediated internationally. Therefore, we demand that the Indonesian government dialogue with ULMWP mediated by a neutral third party. (Contents of a letter dated August 26, 2019)
4. The Papua Church Council urges the Government of Indonesia to immediately open itself up to negotiations with ULMWP as an equal negotiating partner mediated by a third party as the Government of Indonesia did with GAM in ACEH; as the only solution to bring about permanent peace in the Land of Papua, in accordance with the Pastoral appeal which on August 26, 2019 was read and submitted directly to the Commander of the TNI and the Indonesian Police at the Swiss-Bell Hotel Jayapura. (Contents of the letter September 13, 2019).
1. President of the Alliance of West Papuan Baptist Churches
2. Member: PAPUAN COUNCIL OF CHURCHES (WPCC)
3. Member: Pacific Conference of Churches (PCC)
4. Member: Baptist World Alliance (BWA).